Overly dense and/or overly generic prospectuses render an investment product
that should be relatively easy to understand too complicated for most
investors, reports the WSJ in a Nov. 27 article. The products, exchange-traded
funds (ETFs), generally involve investment strategies that should be simple
for the lay investor to understand. ETFs are
mutual funds that trade on listed exchanges (such as the NYSE) in the same manner as
traditional stocks. Unfortunately, according to the WSJ, "while they
would seem to be transparent, their trading sometimes doesn't reflect
their underlying value."
On May 6, for example, the market experienced a "flash crash"
during which many ETFs seemed to become almost entirely worthless in a
few brief seconds, only to rebound moments later. A look through many
of the funds' prospectuses would not indicate that level of risk to
As reported in the article, many of the prospectuses contain overly generic
and vague language, which makes it difficult for potential investors to
understand both the risks of the funds and how one ETF may differ from
another. In addition, ETFs often have complicated fee structures that
are explained in terminology that is too complex for most investors to follow.
These problems mean that most prospectuses do not do a very good job of
explaining the risks and benefits of a particular ETF to potential investors.
While the firms that offer the funds often believe the documents disclose
all necessary information, financial advisers and investors do not always
agree. One adviser quoted in the article suggests basing the appraisal
of a fund on its past performance history rather than on the information
in the prospectus. "Show me the returns," he says. "Am
I getting what I thought I would?"